Tuesday, May 26, 2020
Defining motivation: Well-known and unsolved When we see a person acting in an abnormal way, we cannot help but think Ã¢â¬Å"why are they doing that?Ã¢â¬ We form judgements about people and question the reasoning behind their actions in an attempt to better understand their situation. This ability to understand intentions plays an important role in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society, allowing us to relate to one another and form deep connections through picturing ourselves in that same position. Nevertheless, there are times when we are unable to relate, and unable to understand why someone chooses to act in a certain way, say a certain thing, or be a certain type of person. This desire Ã¢â¬â this motivation to do something Ã¢â¬â has been felt by each and every human beingÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦That being said, the characteristics when defining a concept include being 1. Simple and easy to understand; 2. Useful in the field to which it relates; 3. Specific enough to refer to one and only one possible entity, being the definiendum; 4. Measurable; 5. Reflect current scientific knowledge (Gupta, 2008). The nature of motivation has traditionally been separated into two qualitatively distinct forms: a) intrinsic interest and; b) extrinsic motivation (Deci Ryan, 1985). This assumption has served as the foundation of many psychological theories and experiments. Yet, when this same concept is viewed from a neurological standpoint, there is evidence to suggest that both intrinsic and extrinsic motivations activate the same areas in the striatum that are associated with rewards, implying that they may both part of the same reward based system. (Murayama et al., 2010) This, along with other examples (see Shultz Lepper, 1998), suggest that neuroscience and computational theories may be able to account for complex phenomena in much simpler terms. This could allow for greater generalizations and uniformity in future models of the brain, leading to insights we might not have otherwise made. Whether it is a morning cup of coffee, the
Friday, May 15, 2020
Nonverbal Communication One thing we all have in common is that we must all communicate in one form or another. Everyone communicates if they know it or not. Both verbal and nonverbal communication is used during conversations. Using both forms helps convey and support the messages you are trying to send. Communication is the backbone of human existence. Without it we would be nothing more than organized matter. It has allowed us to grow, learn, build, and survive. When we talk to another person we are sending a message which is received, decoded, and responded to accordingly. But there is much more to communication than just its verbal aspects. The way we hold ourselves, tone of voice, bodily gestures, eye movement, all of these areÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦It somewhat identifies our physical qualities also. First impressions are made from how we view physical appearance. Race, sex, hairstyle, and size are what we notice first when we view someone for the first time. For example, in order to ge t some jobs you have to be presentable. Meaning that the supervisor that makes his or her decision of hiring the person based on their physical appearance. Proxemics is space and the use of it. Found information states that Edward T. Hall said that people maintain space between each other based on their relationship or based on how they feel about each other. For example men use more personal space than women. Men are more likely to invade others personal space especially women. They prefer face to face conversation than women do. Oculescis is defined as eye behavior, eye contact, a way of listening and a way of communicating to others. The complexity of human nonverbal communication may be illustrated by the physical face and the eyes. The face is a primary expresser of emotions. The study of oculesics, are the pupils of the human eye. Which shows that a human responds variously to many different situations? Studies show that the pupil either closes or widens under fearful or friendly conditions. Eye contact is misinterpreted all the time. Research states that women rarely stare. They engage in more eye contact while conversation. They signal interest by keeping eye contact. Women do breakShow MoreRelatedNonverbal Communication As An Intercultural Communication1325 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThere are many definitions for the term, Ã¢â¬Å"communicationÃ¢â¬ . According to Samovar, Porter, McDaniel, and Roy (2015), communication is the ability to share ideas and feelings, and is the basis of human contact. Communi cation can also be defined as the process of transmitting information and common understanding from one person to another (Keyton, 2011). In my own words, I would define communication as sending and receiving message through verbal and nonverbal modes between individuals or groups. Read MoreVerbal Communication : Nonverbal Communication1428 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages The real communication is just based on the words we communicate with each other to deliver our messages and intentions. However, after taking this class it is quite clear to me that communication is not just verbal communication but nonverbal as well. After taking this course, I have become able to understand the nonverbal aspects in each and every communication, I use to encounter with or actions I use to see or experience. This course lets me understood that nonverbal communication covers severalRead MoreVerbal and Nonverbal Communication1472 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesresearch done on verbal and nonverbal communication. First, we need to know what verbal and nonverbal communication is. Nonverbal communication is the way in which people communicate, intentionally or unintentionally, without words. Nonverbal communication uses nonverbal cues including facial expressions, tone of voice, gestures, body position, movement, the use of touch, and gaze (Aronson, Wilson, Akert, 2013). Verbal communication is what a person actually says. This communication relies on the wordsRead More Nonverbal Communication Essay850 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Found information states that Ã¢â¬Å"nonverbal communication is the process of transporting messages through behaviors, physical characteristics and objectsÃ¢â¬ . Its how and what we use in order to express our feelings and say things. Using symbols is a way of using nonverbal communication. Also nonverbal communication is the way we use body language and gestures too. Nonverbal communication is often used unconsciously. When using the certain communication it can be misinterpreted also. There are manyRead MoreThe Origin Of Nonverbal Communication947 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesprofessor Albert Mehrabian and Susan R. Ferris, that concluded that 93% of communication is considered nonverbal. Nonverbal communication can be anything from tone of voice, body language, and anything that doesn t come out of your mouth basically. Nonverbal communication varies across cultures and sexes and is an essential part of our world. Knowing the facts about how we communicate and the w ay we react to communication is important to increase trust, clarity, and add interest to your presentationRead MoreNonverbal Communication Essay1569 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesNonverbal communication is the process of sending and receiving messages without using words, either spoken or written. And it is also called manual language. Similar to the way that italicizing emphasizes written language, nonverbal behavior may emphasize parts of a verbal message. The term nonverbal communication was introduced by psychiatrist Jurgen Ruesch and author Weldon Kees in the book Nonverbal Communication Notes on the Visual Perception of Human Relations. It includes the use of visualRead MoreNonverbal Communication Essay1413 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIn a romantic relationship, it is easy to have miscommunication between a man and a woman. Ã¢â¬Å"Most researchers agree that 70% or more of the meaning of any message is communicated through nonverbal channels like eye contact, facial expressions, posture, hand gestures, etc.Ã¢â¬ (Stinnett, 2015). Verbal and nonverbal messages are like a relationship, they work well together that way the message is sent and delivered appropriately and that there is no miscommunication. Women have their way of expressingRead MoreNonverbal Communication And Human Communication2357 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesNonverbal communication is communication through sending and receiving wordless cues such as body language between two people. Communication can be through gestures and touch, body language, posture, facial expression, or eye contact. Face to face interactions of nonverbal communication can be classified into three areas: environmental conditions, physical characteristics of the communicators, and behaviors of communicators during the interaction. Approximately two thirds of all communicationRead MoreAn Article On Nonverbal Communication1646 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesWarren Stewig in an article published in the professional journal Language Arts provides an excellent commentary on nonverbal communication. His article is an exceptional example of academic writing that has been formatted as a primer or tool to be used by other educators. Professor Stewig provides a breakout of how much of a given message can be considered verbal and how much nonverbal. He also introduces the term kinesics and divides kinesics into two categories: personal and professional gesturesRead MoreNonverbal Communication : Non Verbal Communication890 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesLiterature Review According to some psychologists, non-verbal communication varies based on a personÃ¢â¬â¢s cultural background, more so in the individualism-collectivism dimension. Additionally, studies have indicated that intercultural diversities in how verbal communications are observed can be traced to differences in facial signs that individuals from West and East look for when detecting emotions (Serlin, Berger Bar-Sinai, 2007). Therefore, people from distinctive cultures are expected to be
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Newjack: Guarding Sing Sing The distressing experience of operating as a prison guard in such a notorious penal facility as New York StateÃ¢â¬â¢s Sing Sing Penitentiary is one that is unlikely to be desired by one not professionally committed to the execution of prison uniformity. However, the outstanding novel written by Tom Conover illustrates the encounters of a journalist who voluntarily plunged himself into the obscure universe of the men and women paid to spend the better portion of their lives behind prison barriers. In Newjack: Guarding Sing Sing, Conover creates a noteworthy document resonating personal emotional occurrences that nonetheless suggest the cultural sensitivity of a true prison guard. From the standpoint of our studiesÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Most of his time at Sing Sing was consumed being in close contact with the inmates, in dining halls and housing galleries, doing strip searches, searching cells, writing disciplinary infraction reports, and confiscating inmate contraband. I n addition, because they live in an enforced state of near powerlessness, answering to inmates who required support with a seemingly endless range of personal complications occupied much of ConoverÃ¢â¬â¢s time. ConoverÃ¢â¬â¢s account of the correctional officerÃ¢â¬â¢s role is consistent with those opinions offered by others who have firsthand experience of prison life. Virtually all serious, firsthand interpretations of correctional work define a gap between the training and the realism of the job, official policies and procedures that require routine avoidance, poor associations between line officers and administrators, and the undermining power of stress on professional conduct and personal life. Conover also covers all of this, describing the overwhelming confusion of a new officerÃ¢â¬â¢s first days in a crowded housing unit, illustrating the newjackÃ¢â¬â¢s reliance on the helpfulness of prisoners, portraying the obvious unfriendliness and unconcern of higher-ranking coworkers, and exhibiting the unavoidability of making critical and even life-threatening blunders in the tumultuous world of the prison. In doing that, Conover assists readers in getting beyond the stereotype of the ruthless guard to see correctionalShow MoreRelatedAnalysis of Ted Conovers Memoir- Newjack Essay923 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesNewjack Ã¢â¬â Ted Conover Newjack is Ted ConoverÃ¢â¬â¢s personal memoir as a correctional officer in one of New YorkÃ¢â¬â¢s famous maximum security prisons: Sing Sing. The job of a correctional officer consists of long days locking and unlocking cells, moving prisoners to and from various locations while the prisoners beg, aggravate and abuse them. After a short time at the academy and a brief period of on-the-job training, Conover found himself working, often alone and always unarmed, in galleries housingRead MoreAnalysis Of The Book The Guarding Sing Sang By Ted Conover1089 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe book NewJack: Guarding Sing Sing by Ted Conover is an profound book to read it gave me a great glimpse of how the prison life really is and how you can put yourself in comparing how Hollywood movies or TV shows displays them. Conover discuss about the history of Sing Sing prison since 1826. It was an authentic and straight forward of how the prison life is especially for those who want to pursue as a co rrectional officers. It gave two perspectives one from the guards and the other by the inmatesRead MoreThe Life of a Guard in the Book, NewJack: Guarding Sing Sing, by Ted Conover643 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesIn the book NewJack: Guarding Sing Sing, the book discussed the life of a guard. Most people feel that the guards are bad guys in the criminal justice system and with the politics of the criminal justice systems there are many assumptions of the way in which the stereotype of prison guardÃ¢â¬â¢s life should be. The author Ted Conover explains first hand on the experiences behind the scenes that many guards experiences throughout their careers that is an untold story of the truth in the prison system.Read MoreImages Of Prison Life And Correctional Officers1932 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesnumerous portrayals of the correctional system there are a few exceptions. For example, Ted ConoverÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Newjack: Guarding Sing SingÃ¢â¬ is an excellent and rare example of the journalists Ã¢â¬â¢ firsthand experiences as an undercover trained correctional officer. Ted Conover, spent a year working as a newjack Ã¢â¬â the inmate term for a newly-minted New York correctional officer Ã¢â¬â in New York s Sing Sing prison. Far from the popular belief portrayed in the media the role of a correctional officer is to be responsibleRead MoreAnalysis Of Truman Capote s Cold Blood1868 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesmore depth than traditional journalists, resulting in the reveal of society s greater truths in their books. These greater truths are present in the books In Cold Blood, by Truman Capote, The Monster of Florence, by Douglas Preston, and Newjack: Guarding Sing Sing, by Ted Conover, as well as many articles written by various authors. In Cold Blood, by Truman Capote, gives the reader an in depth view of the investigation surrounding the murders of the Clutters, a family living in Holcomb, Kansas.Read MoreAnalysis Of Ted Conover s Coyotes 1995 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pages(iDreamBooks.com), Ted Conover is an American author well known for going undercover and actively participating in his chosen field of research (newnewjournalism.com), generally staying in the role for a long period of time such as in Ã¢â¬Å"Newjack: Guarding Sing SingÃ¢â¬ (Conover. T. 2000) when he went undercover as a correction officer, or Ã¢â¬Ëprison guard,Ã¢â¬â¢ (Conover. T. 2000) for a year to find the information that he was not able to gather in any other way as he was a journalist. To ConoverÃ¢â¬â¢s true style
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Discuss about the Involvement Management and Organizational Performance. Answer: Introduction The report is an overview of the how marketing manager is responsible for managing the firms requirements along with the human resource department. The report largely talks about the marketing strategies need to be followed and the recruitment and selection procedure. It is written with respect to the company of Singapore which deals with networking mainly recognized by its abbreviation as SingTel, Singapore Telecommunications Limited. The report presents the image of what are the duties and responsibilities of the marketing manager and what kind of demands this job makes so that it can meet the demands of the company effectively and efficiently. Singapore Telecommunications Limited particularly known as SingTel is a telecommunication company in Singapore. It was founded on 1879 in Singapore. The company provides mobile networks all over the country to millions of subscribers. The products offered by the company includes broadband and fixed-line internet services, fixed line and mobile telephony, digital, IT and network services. It has also widely expanded itself over the countries like Asia, Australia, and Africa. The Company is highly professional and has achieved heights (Buller McEvoy, 2012). The amount of profit generated by the company is near $3.853 billion. Since the company is quite large the number of employees working in the organization is more than 25,000. The Company provides services related to a network which has given company number of customers. This increased their chances of earning more of profit. The organization offers a number of job vacancies every year. This gives a chance to recruit new employees with extra skills and hard labor. Since the company runs on a large scale it expands its business by replacing the redesigned employees with professionals. The supervisory position presented in the report is of Marketing Manager (Jiang, Lepak, Hu Baer, 2012). A Market Manager is one who is responsible for managing the selling the products of profit and observing the requirements of the business in order to make a profit. A marketing manager is responsible for making a good strategy to increase the number of customers. This allows the company to make more and profit (Hlsheger, Alberts, Feinholdt Lang, 2013). The plans made by them must relate to consumer research. They are responsible for managing agencies of media and digital.The market plans made by them necessarily have to set the standards to outshine the other companies in the market. The major responsibility that they have to maintain the contacts with its internal and external partners. This is important as to measure the market positions of the company jointly. Their duty is to keep a check on the market budget and invest into the market accordingly. They are responsible for managing the website on social media in order to be aware and let others aware about the functioning of the business. They have to collect and analyze the data by preparing reports on a monthly basis as asked by the company. They are advised to look into every matter closely to ensure no chances of risk and failure (Lin, 2013). Job Specification Before hiring any person to work for the company, the company checks and evaluates whether the person has sufficient skill and knowledge or not, whether he is able to work for the company and is able to give good outputs or not. The company before hiring for the position of Marketing Manager demands minimum experience of 5 years in the related sector. He must know about the trading in the market through network i.e. he should have good experience of social media. He must have good communication skills as expected from the employee for a job like this. The applicant should have a degree in business administration and marketing. If the candidate comes from the same industry then he can easily understand the environment of the companys requirements. He should have a basic knowledge of computers like MS office, excel, access and PowerPoint. Interpersonal and strong written skills are required for appointing a new candidate in the company as an operation manager. They must understand the value of the position they will work for. Being a marketing manager of a company is not easy. One should acquire all such skills and abilities (Dulebohn, Bommer, Liden, Brouer Ferris, 2012). The human resource manager is responsible for designing the job for a company. The job designing is based on the actions such as motivation, efficiency, health and safety and intellectual capability of the employees. Job design at a company like SingTel is done with intellectuality. One has to work firmly and with full efficiency. Job design is the core and primary function of human resource management. It is a basic function of human resource management. It includes the different type of information, methods that need to be followed in the organization and employee relationship. This ensures the requirements of technology and organization. The requirements of the company also depend on social and personal wants and expectations of the employment. The HR department is responsible for appointing a candidate as an operation manager in the operation department; they have been discussed below (Bangerter, Roulin Knig, 2012). The job design of the company works on motivating the employees efficiently. The responsibility of motivating the employees of the company is fulfilled by the human resource department. They motivate them to work hard in order to make the company achieve its target effectively (Wood, Van Veldhoven, Croon de Menezes, 2012). The HR management observes the working of the employee. Employees of the company are advised to talk about the problem with the HR department. Every employee of the firm is advised to work potentially and effectively. They must not be burdened by any matter. They should be capable of working not only physically but also mentally (Tims, Bakker Derks, 2013). The marketing department of SingTel is also responsible for taking a good care of its employees. The very important thing to do is to maintain a proper record of the employees working in the firm. The marketing manager cannot take the risk of losing the very efficient employee. He has to be alert all the time about their health and safety. A good health of the employee will result in good outputs for the firm. The marketing manager is therefore responsible for managing these criteria with the help of human resource manager. He has to maintain a proper record of the employees safety and health. He is the one responsible for the care of such employees who work for their firm (Grant, 2012). Recruitment strategies The marketing department of SingTel knows very well about the type of strategies to make that can result in a good sale. The marketing manager is the one who is responsible for recruiting the applicants. He knows very well about the qualities needed to work as an employee of marketing. Before recruiting, the manager looks for the creativity level that the applicant posses. He chooses the applicant according to their skills and understanding. The human resource management of SingTel makes effective recruitment strategies in marketing sector as well to appoint a new candidate in the organization. Human resource department is responsible for answering the members and also works into job analyses. It is also answerable for recruiting and selecting the candidates for firms good future. (Treweek, Lockhart, Pitkethly, Cook, Kjeldstrm, Johansen Jones, 2013). The type of strategies followed by SingTel while recruiting has actually given good results to the company. The recruitment strategies planned by the human resource department is granting success to the company. The kind of environment developed at the firm makes it easier to work and maintain a proper discipline. Strategies made by human resource department are never questioned by SingTel. They very well know about the kind of strategies made for marketing. These strategies help the company in better functioning of the organization. A good plan makes the good functioning of the firm. The marketing strategies planned in order to recruit employees are full of creative ideas as needed in marketing. Employees put their efforts in order to get selected. The result of such efforts develops competition among employees which brings good to the company. (Aldao Nolen-Hoeksema, 2012). When the company requires a large number of employees in the organization it fills the vacant positions by recruiting the employees from the organization itself. This source of recruiting is called Internal Recruiting Source. The benefit of this source is that since the employees are hired from the same company they know about the rules and policies of the company. This saves time in explaining them and results in better output in a short run (Powell, Waltz, Chinman, Damschroder, Smith, Matthieu, Kirchner, 2015). External recruitment is that type of recruitment source where the company hires a candidate through job applications. The candidates are not from the existing staff. This gives the company a chance to meet new ideas and talents that can help the company in near future. The qualified candidates are hired to fill the vacancies (Peters-Lawrence, Bell, Hsu, Osunkwo, Seaman, Blackwood, Dampier, 2012). Selection strategies The selection process begins after the process of recruitment. The selected employees have to work on the project assigned to them. They work for the firm by completing the projects. Selection in telecommunication companies, like SingTel is done on the basis of the input they give an output that company receives. Their punctuality and their behavior depending on the career. They have to be polite with the other members of the society. The process of selection is dependent upon the qualification. The qualification of the candidate should fulfill the eligibility criteria to get selected. Since the job of marketing managers is to look into marketing criteria, therefore, they do their work of selecting the employees according to their creative level. The marketing manager usually works by collaborating with the supervisors in order to select the best employee from the applicants. The candidates are recommended to be confident. They should show their skills that they are good at and in fa vor of the company. He is advised to think about something new and something innovative (Karim Arif-Uz-Zaman, 2013). Implementation of selection strategies The selected employees have to make the most of the opportunity given at SingTel Company. The selection of the employees results in good outputs and better functioning. The employees are selected as professionals and work for the benefit of the company in an effective way. They are taught to maintain discipline in the environment of the company. Since the employees are taught and trained before working on any project, therefore, it becomes easy to deal with the problems. The selected candidates are advised to put their best efforts in making the project superficial. The employees are benefited for their quality of work. Hence they are provided with incentives and bonus. This keeps their interest ongoing (Roh, Hong Min, 2014). The benefits given to them include traveling packages, bonuses, promotion etc. This makes them work with passion and enthusiasm. The selected candidate is majorly taught to have communicative skills as the company major purpose is of telecommunication. The sele ction procedure should be effective. It must lead the companys growth towards marketing. The selection of the candidates for the department of marketing gives a new level of thinking in the company. The selected candidates have to work for the fulfillment of the marketing demands. The strategies made by the elected employees results in good output as they are trained before getting into the project. Also, along with the new employee's company also chooses to select a certain number of employees from the already existing employees. This also provides the advantage of saving time (Proctor, Powell McMillen, 2013). Conclusion On the above discussion, the report concludes by talking about the criteria followed by Singapore Telecommunications Limited while selecting the respective candidates to work for the company and its implementation. SingTel is widely known all over the country for providing access to large networks. Therefore, it becomes necessary for them to provide good services to the customers and to expand itself in the market. The report talks about each and everything that needs to be done by the marketing manager to take the company to heights. Through the report, it is clear that what strategies a company must follow to meet the demands of the market. The report makes it very clear how important it is to have an HR department in the company. In this way, it can be said that human resource department plays a vital role in every organization. References Aldao, A., Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2012). The influence of context on the implementation of adaptive emotion regulation strategies.Behaviour research and therapy,50(7), 493-501. Armstrong, M., Taylor, S. (2014).Armstrong's handbook of human resource management practice. Kogan Page Publishers. Bangerter, A., Roulin, N., Knig, C. J. (2012). Personnel selection as a signaling game.Journal of Applied Psychology,97(4), 719. Buller, P. F., McEvoy, G. M. (2012). Strategy, human resource management and performance: Sharpening line of sight.Human resource management review,22(1), 43-56. Dulebohn, J. H., Bommer, W. H., Liden, R. C., Brouer, R. L., Ferris, G. R. (2012). A meta-analysis of antecedents and consequences of leader-member exchange: Integrating the past with an eye toward the future.Journal of management,38(6), 1715-1759. Grant, A. M. (2012). Giving time, time after time: Work design and sustained employee participation in corporate volunteering.Academy of Management Review,37(4), 589-615. Hlsheger, U. R., Alberts, H. J., Feinholdt, A., Lang, J. W. (2013). Benefits of mindfulness at work: The role of mindfulness in emotion regulation, emotional exhaustion, and job satisfaction.Journal of Applied Psychology,98(2), 310. Jiang, K., Lepak, D. P., Hu, J., Baer, J. C. (2012). How does human resource management influence organizational outcomes? A meta-analytic investigation of mediating mechanisms.Academy of management Journal,55(6), 1264-1294. Karim, A., Arif-Uz-Zaman, K. (2013). A methodology for effective implementation of lean strategies and its performance evaluation in manufacturing organizations.Business Process Management Journal,19(1), 169-196. Lin, T. T. (2013). Convergence and regulation of multi-screen television: The Singapore experience.Telecommunications Policy,37(8), 673-685. Peters-Lawrence, M. H., Bell, M. C., Hsu, L. L., Osunkwo, I., Seaman, P., Blackwood, M., ... Dampier, C. D. (2012). Clinical trial implementation and recruitment: lessons learned from the early closure of a randomized clinical trial.Contemporary clinical trials,33(2), 291-297. Powell, B. J., Waltz, T. J., Chinman, M. J., Damschroder, L. J., Smith, J. L., Matthieu, M. M., ... Kirchner, J. E. (2015). A refined compilation of implementation strategies: results from the Expert Recommendations for Implementing Change (ERIC) project.Implementation Science,10(1), 21. Proctor, E. K., Powell, B. J., McMillen, J. C. (2013). Implementation strategies: recommendations for specifying and reporting.Implementation Science,8(1), 139. Roh, J., Hong, P., Min, H. (2014). Implementation of a responsive supply chain strategy in global complexity: The case of manufacturing firms.International Journal of Production Economics,147, 198-210. Tims, M., Bakker, A. B., Derks, D. (2013). The impact of job crafting on job demands, job resources, and well-being.Journal of occupational health psychology,18(2), 230. Treweek, S., Lockhart, P., Pitkethly, M., Cook, J. A., Kjeldstrm, M., Johansen, M., ... Jones, R. (2013). Methods to improve recruitment to randomised controlled trials: Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis.BMJ open,3(2), e002360. Wood, S., Van Veldhoven, M., Croon, M., de Menezes, L. M. (2012). Enriched job design, high involvement management and organizational performance: The mediating roles of job satisfaction and well-being.Human relations,65(4), 419-445.
Monday, April 13, 2020
Slavery The issue of slavery has been touched upon often in the course of history. The institution of slavery was addressed by French intellectuals during the Enlightenment. Later, during the French Revolution, the National Assembly issued the Declaration of the Rights of Man, which declared the equality of all men. Issues were raised concerning the application of this statement to the French colonies in the West Indies, which used slaves to work the land. As they had different interests in mind, the philosophes, slave owners, and political leaders took opposing views on the interpretation of universal equality. Many of the philosophes, the leaders of the Enlightenment, were against slavery. They held that all people had a natural dignity that should be recognized. Voltaire, an 18th century philosophe, pointed out that hundreds of thousands of slaves were sacrificing their lives just so the Europeans could quell their new taste for sugar, tea and cocoa. A similar view was taken by Rousseau, who stated that he could not bear to watch his fellow human beings be changed to beasts for the service of others. Religion entered into the equation when Diderot, author of the Encyclopedia, brought up the fact that the Christian religion was fundamentally opposed to Black slavery but employed it anyway in order to work the plantations that financed their countries. All in all, those influenced by the ideals of the Enlightenment, equality, liberty, the right to dignity, tended to oppose the idea of slavery. Differing from the philosophes, the political leaders and property owners tended to see slavery as an element that supported the economy. These people believed that if slavery and the slave trade were to be abolished, the French would lose their colonies, commerce would collapse and as a result the merchant marine, agriculture and the arts would decline. Their worries were somewhat merited; by 1792 French ships were delivering up to 38,000 slaves and this trade brought in 200 million livres a year. These people had economic incentives to support slavery, however others were simply ignorant. One man, Raynal, said that white people were incapable of working in the hot sun and blacks were much better suited to toil and labor in the intense heat. Having a similar view to Raynal, one property owner stated that tearing the blacks from the only homes they knew was actually humane. Though they had to work without pay, this man said slave traders were doing the blacks a favor by placing them in the French colonies where they could live without fear for tomorrow. All of these people felt that the Declaration of the Rights of Man did not pertain to black people or their descendants. All people were not ignorant, however. There was even a group of people who held surprisingly modern views on slavery; views some people haven't even accepted today. In his Reflections on Black People, Olympe de Gouges wondered why blacks were enslaved. He said that the color of people's skin suggests only a slight difference. The beauty of nature lies in the fact that all is varied. Another man, Jacques Necker, told people that one day they would realize the error of their ways and notice that all people have the same capacity to think and suffer. The slavery issue was a topic of debate among the people of France. The views of the people, based on enlightenment, the welfare of the country or plain ignorance were tossed around for several more years until the issue was finally resolved. In the end the philosophes, with their liberated ideas, won out and slavery was abolished.
Wednesday, March 11, 2020
The Effects Of Music On Advertising And Choice Bef Essays The Effects Of Music On Advertising And Choice Befhavior Jose Gonzalez Mktg. section 8 April 2000 THE EFFECTS OF MUSIC IN ADVERTISING ON CHOICE BEHAVIOR: Introduction Commercials typically contain both product spedific information and background features such as pleasant music, attractive colors, and humor. Of the two experiments that Gerald J. Gorn conducted we will analyze the one experiment, which determined whether background features of a commercial, in this specific case music, affected product preferences in consumers. It is said that the impact of product information in a commercial on beliefs and attitudes would typically be interpreted within an information-processing framework. It is suggested according to Gorn that a classical conditioning framework could account for the potential impact of background features on product attitudes. This approach believes that the subject must be consciously aware of the presence of the unconditioned stimulus when the conditioned stimulus is present in order for the conditioning to take place. One difficulty with the classical Conditioning approach is the lack of awareness. According to Gorn, the consumermay not always be aware that the unconditioned stimuli in a commercial may affect his/her product attitudes, moe general, the consumer may not be aware of the real forces impacting on both attitudes in this case the impact of music. In a typical communication situation, people may not realize or accept the impact of unconditioned stimulus on their responses to the ad. So, possible classical conditioning effects might therefore, be underestimated and underrreported in self-reports. Cognitive bias can result from an atempt to think well of oneself, states Gorn. So it means that a rational analysis in communication behavior might be bias in favor of information. For classical conditioning, product information in the commercial must be kept minimal, otherwiese the unconditioned stimulus in the commercial might vaguely be arousing interest in product information.
Monday, February 24, 2020
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